The name Hill Basta is derived from the ancient Egyptian word “Bar-Bastt,” and was the main center of worship “Bastt”; the cat goddess associated with the fertility of women, and played an essential role in protecting. It was the capital of the eighteenth region of Lower Egypt in the era of modern state (about 1550-1069 BC. M) and the capital of the country during the twenty second family (945-715 A.C. M). Its location in the east of Delta in the modern city of Zagazig in the eastern governorate has also made it an important business center through which travelers and commercial convoys from and to Sinai and beyond, highlighted the visit of the Holy Family to Popastus during her trip to Egypt. Its ruins are located in the suburbs of the modern city of Zagazig.
Bar Bastt is a site for many archaeological sites, including the Bastt Temple and the statue of Queen “Maryt Amon” wife of “Ramis II” (1279-1213 BC. M). In addition to the sixth family temple of my “first baby” (about 2321 – 2287 BC. M), and the palace of the third pennies (1855-1808 B.C. M), and a well from the Roman era.
Hill Basta has a long history of excavations that carried out Egyptian and foreign missions. Where Edward Naville worked in the Bastet Temple between 1887 and 1889 AD. Then the excavation and excavation works led by “Libib Habshi”, which resulted in the discovery of “Bby I” temple in 1939 AD. The Third Amnimhat Palace was also discovered by the mission of the Supreme Council of Archets and the University of Zagazig led by “Shafiq Farid” in the sixties, and “Ahmed Al-Sawy” after about a decade, then “Mohamed Al-Sawi” after that, and “Ibrahim Bakr” in the late seventies and eighties of the last century
Petel Basta Open Museum
The following swamp works on the city of Popastes (Tel Pasta) revealed many different archeological pieces, sizes and time periods attached to it, as well as many archeological sites at the site that became like a museum garden, including a statue of the deity Basta from Black granite as a lion head.
In addition to parts of the archaeological gate of the Bastet Temple, built by the King of the Twenty-second family “Osarkon II” (circa 874 – 850 BC. M). The structure was fully covered with photos of him celebrating “Hab-Sad” celebrations, the royal ceremony was aimed at renewing the king’s youth and his royal authority.
In addition to the many fractures carrying the names and surnames of kings, including a block of sandstone in the shape of a hieroglyphic “alka” (which takes the shape of two raised arms), the name of the king was written inside it. And although this part is fascinating, it clearly also contains the Hory name of the King “Nakhtanbo II/Nakhtor Hoorhabat” (360-343 BC. M), and he is the last king of the thirty family.
The Open Museum also includes a number of statues of kings and goddesses, and one of the highlights of the red granite statue of the King “Ramis II” (1279-1213 AD. M) From the nineteenth family, standing between the deities Hathour and God Bataah. Also a set of pillars crowns from the Greek Roman era belonging to the Corinthian regime.
The King’s Palace, the third Amenemhat
In 1960, the archaeologist Shafiq discovered the remains of a large palace of silk bricks, dating back to the twelfth family era (circa 1985 – 1795 BC. M) During the Middle State Age.
Archaeologists Ahmed Al-Sawy and Mohamed Ibrahim Bakir continue the work of the excavations and the excavation of the remains of the palace in the late seventies, eighties and nineties.
This palace is likely to have been the king’s residence when it was in Bar Bastet or the headquarters of mayors or governors (province) due to its huge size, with its space about 16,000 m2.
As shown on the doorsteps made of lime stone discovered inside; the Great King Acts III (1855-1808 AD. M) in his mansion to celebrate his 30th anniversary or what is known as Valentine’s Day.
The palace included a set of archbishop pillars, spacious halls and storage rooms, and what appears to be a large kitchen with several ovens.
Statue of the Queen “Meritamun”
Maryet Amon (God’s beloved Amon) was the fourth daughter of the King “Ramis the II” (circa 1279-1213 A.C. M). Her mother was the famous Queen Nefertari, who after her mother’s death also became a great royal wife to Lemmessis II.
This huge statue of pink granite weighing 80 tons – 9 meters tall, which was discovered through a joint mission of the Supreme Council of Archeology and the University of Botsdam, Germany in 2001.
Although this statue was made in the era of Ramses II, one of the kings of the twenty-second family re-designed (about 874 m –850 B.C. M) to his wife “Karumama”, and their names can be seen on the back of this statue.
The Roman Well
The first terrorism to find the well in 1991, as part of the works of the Zakazig University excavator mission inside the Bastet Temple, and then the head of the mission announced the discovery of the well in 1997.
This well follows a Roman architectural style, but it has found many luxury pots dating back to the period from the 1st century to the 4th century.
The stories and sources of the Holy Family’s trip also talked about that the family members drank from this well when they arrived to the city of Tel Basta, which the Holy Family entered on 24th of July according to the Coptic calendar and agreed on June 1st, which is still celebrated by the Christians of Egypt and the world in humiliation K today of every year.
The “Bastet” temple is one of the main temples dedicated to the worship of the deity “Bastet”, in the ancient state, which was linked to the fertility of women, as well as a protective and protective temple. Originally, it was filmed as a female lioness and then a cat afterwards.
According to the Greek historian “Herodot” who visited “Bur Bastet” in the 5th century BC, that despite having another bigger and greater temple than our “Bastet” temple, there is none of these temples more comfortable to see than this temple, where the temple is surrounded by two channels and lined up On the tree side, which is allowed With a great view of the city.
During the twenty-second family era, when Barbastet became the capital of Egypt, the Bastet Temple was expanded, and a lot of materials were reused from previous buildings. And from the Oldest of the two blocks of red granite from the covenant of King Khofu (2589-2566 Q. M) and the King is a branch (circa 2015-2532 A.C. M) of the fourth family
The additions to the temple in the twenty second family by King Osurcon I (924-889 BC. M), whose name appeared at the entrance of the temple. He also installed a huge gate for Osorcon II in the backyard, decorated with views, celebrating Valentine’s Day Dam or its 30th birthday.
And in the far west, long walks lead to a hall of pillars built by Osurcon II with pillars of Al-Birdi and columns of Taurus crowns, as well as the far west end of the temple, which included the holy holy holy, by the last Egyptian kings in the era of the last families kings of the thirty family, King Nakhtanbo II (360-3343 BC M).